TBB College: Grand Chessboard Educational Material

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  1. Angroid CyberSperg 1138

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    Case Study: The role of NGO's, Charities and "Conservation" Agencies in the exploitation, theft and transfer and registration of "intellectual property" obtained from areas they operate in

    Our old friends at the WWF feature again.


    http://articles.timesofindia.indiat...amazon-rain-forest-intelligence-investigation
  3. Angroid CyberSperg 1138

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    Case Study: Asteris Huliaras - A Strange Friend

    The Role of Evangelical Christians in the Making of
    United States Foreign Policy Towards Africa

    About a quarter of US citizens claim to be evangelicals, or ‘‘born-again’’
    Christians.
    1
    However, the evangelical community in the United States is not
    homogeneous.
    2
    Though to a large extent Baptist or Methodist, the evangelical
    camp is very broad, containing a number of quite different denominations. Given
    this variety, some analysts have expressed doubts whether the concept
    “evangelical” is analytically useful.
    3
    Nevertheless, most academic observers
    continue to use the term, claiming that there is “unity in diversity” and that
    evangelical Christianity in the United States can be regarded as an “extended
    family”. After all, the US evangelical denominations are largely represented by
    the National Association of Evangelicals, an umbrella-organisation founded in
    1942 that claims to represent 30 million Christians. Member-organisations are
    theologically conservative viewing the Bible as the sole authority for faith and
    strongly promote preaching and evangelism.
    4
    Evangelicals are the “Christians of
    certainty”. They believe that the biblical scripture is inerrant, they stress
    individual decision to choose God (including “new birth” or personal conversion
    experience), develop a strong personal relationship with Christ and emphasize
    fellowship with other co-believers in a community of “brothers and sisters”.
    Although the proportion of mainline Protestants and Catholics in US
    Christianity is decreasing, that of evangelicals is increasing.
    5
    There are many
    reasons that explain this development in religious demographics. One of them is
    the strong message, a “blessed assurance”, of a heavenly reward. But a crucial
    factor in explaining their success is their increasing sophistication and their wellorganised networks.
    6
    During the last three decades, U.S. evangelicals have
    developed strong and complex connections. Animated by distress over the
    secularism of American culture, they have created alternative schools and

    1
    Andrew Kohut, John C. Green, Scott Keeter and Robert C. Toth, eds, The Diminishing Divide.
    Religion’s Changing Role in American Politics, Washington DC: Brookings Institution Press,
    2000, p. 18. According to the Council on Foreign Relations, their adherents are estimated to
    range from 40 to 75 million (see infra.).
    2
    Harold Perkin, ‘American Fundamentalism and the Selling of God’, The Political Quarterly, 71,
    August 2000, pp. 79-89.
    3
    G. Marsden, ‘The Evangelical Denomination’, in G. Marsden, ed., Evangelicalism and Modern
    America, Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1984. Donald W. Dayton, ‘Some doubts about the usefulness
    of the category “evangelical”’, in Donald W. Dayton and Robert K. Johnston, eds, The Variety of
    American Evangelicalism, Downers Grove IL: InterVarsity Press, 1991, pp. 245-251.
    4
    Robert K. Johnston, ‘American evangelicalism: An extended family’, in ibid., pp. 252-272.
    5
    Walter Russell Mead, ‘God’s Country ?’, Foreign Affairs, Vol. 85 (5), 2006, pp. 33-34.
    6
    Michael Lindsay, Faith in the Halls of Power: How Evangelicals Joined the American Elite,
    Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007. colleges; had alternative books published by such well-known houses as Warner
    Books and Bertelsmann that are keen to reach this market; and developed a
    whole range of alternative entertainment producing music, films and television
    programs.
    7
    As Robert Putnam writes, ‘‘American evangelicals have built the
    largest, best-organized grassroots social networks of the last quarter century.’’
    8
    Until the late 1970s the evangelicals were not very much involved in US
    politics. A large proportion of them did not even bother to vote in presidential
    elections. However, there was a process of gradual politicisation initiated mainly
    by interest in domestic issues like abortion or gay marriage and strengthened by
    Republican party officials looking for new constituencies.
    9

    Several Christian grassroots organizations with a political agenda appeared in the early 1980s.
    Probably the most important of them was the Moral Majority led by the
    evangelical preacher Jerry Falwell. However by the mid-1980s, partly reflecting a
    disappointment with Reagan’s little interest in banishing abortion and
    reinstating school prayer, the Moral Majority was replaced by a number of very
    active evangelical organizations like the Christian Coalition of the cable television
    mogul Pat Robertson and the Focus on the Family of the radio broadcaster James
    Dobson.
    But the evangelical political clout increased spectacularly by the late
    1990s. George W. Bush was more effective than any previous candidate for the
    US presidency in mobilising the tremendous voting potential of the US
    evangelical community. Evangelical voters played a significant role in the
    contested 2000 presidential election, especially in the states President Bush won
    in the electoral college: in total 78 percent of all evangelicals voted Republican
    bringing to the White House an evangelical president.
    10
    The words of an analyst
    who observed in 1999 that “anyone who expects to make sense of American
    politics, domestic or foreign, over the short or long term, must accept that
    religious conservatives have become an enduring and important part of the social
    landscape” seemed to become prophetic.
    11

    Many observers viewed George W. Bush as an exceptionally religious
    president.
    12
    There was ample evidence for this: the new president prayed often,
    read the Bible every day and argued that his faith formed his general “frame of
    mind, and attitude and outlook”
    13
    . His first major appointees included several
    born-again Christians, such as Condoleezza Rice, speech writer Michael Gerson

    7
    Melani McAlister, ‘An empire of their own’, The Nation, September 22, 2003; Martin Blake,
    ‘Stations of the Cross: How Evangelical Christians Are Creating an Alternative Universe of FaithBased News’, Columbia Journalism Review, May/June 2005.
    8
    Robert Putnam, Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community, New York:
    Simon & Schuster, 2001, p. 162.
    9
    Jeffrey Haynes, An Introduction to International Relations and Religion, London:
    Pearson/Longman, 2007, pp. 243-244.
    10
    ‘The triumph of the religious right’, The Economist, November 11, 2004.
    11
    William Martin, ‘The Christian Right and American Foreign Policy’, Foreign Policy, No 114,
    September 1999, pp. 68-80.
    12
    Stephen Mansfield, The Faith of George W. Bush, New York: Tarcher/Penguin, 2003, pp. xviixviii.
    13
    Interview with Steve Waldman, Beliefnet, 2000
    (http://www.beliefnet.com/stoty/47/story_4703.html). and attorney general John Aschroft. Moreover, the new president established an
    Office of Faith-Based and Community Initiatives in the White House. In March
    2003, Newsweek characterized his presidency as the “most resolutely ‘faith
    based’ in modern times”.
    14
    Not unexpectedly, evangelical voters became Bush’s
    most ardent supporters, securing him a second term in 2004, when about one
    third of the extra votes he received were cast by the evangelical community. It is
    estimated that evangelicals now account for more than 40 percent of the
    Republican voter base.
    15
    For decades, evangelical groups focused mainly on domestic issues, such
    as abortion and gay marriage. They were considered to be America’s staunchest
    isolationists, with the exception of their strong anti-communist views and their
    support for Israel.
    16
    However, in recent years the evangelical political agenda has
    shifted more and more to foreign affairs. In the words of an analyst, the
    evangelicals became America’s “newest internationalists”.
    17
    This development is
    mainly due to two factors.
    First, their missionary activities. Until the early 1950s, the majority of US
    Protestant missions in the Third World was drawn from mainline
    denominations.
    18
    However, by the late 1980s, “nine out of ten American
    protestant missionaries were evangelical”.
    19
    A combination of growing selfconfidence and impressive economic resources (more than two billion dollars
    annually) explain this shift.
    20Evangelical missions have become a big industry in
    Africa showing historically unprecedented growth rates. Only in Kenya in the
    early 1990s there were at least1,300 American protestant missionaries.
    21
    In the
    second half of the 1990s, the number of US evangelicals that fanned out across
    the globe on proselytizing missions reached record levels. According to some
    estimates, nearly 350,000 Americans undertook such missions in 2001, eight
    times as many as in 1996.
    22
    In 2002, the Southern Baptist Convention, one of the
    most important US evangelical denominations, spent $290 million abroad,
    mainly in Asia and Africa, establishing more than 8,000 churches and baptizing
    more than 421,000 converts.
    23
    In July-September 2005, the BBC’s Focus on
    Africa reported:

    14
    Howard Fineman, ‘Bush and God’, Newsweek, March 10, 2003, p. 25.
    15
    ‘The Triumph of the Religious Right – American Values’, The Economist, November 13, 2004.
    16
    Martin Durham, ‘Evangelical Protestantism and Foreign Policy in the United States after
    September 11’, Patterns of Prejudice, Vol. 38 (2), 2004, pp. 147-154; Jeremy D. Mayer, ‘Christian
    Fundamentalists and Public Opinion Toward the Middle East: Israel’s New Best Friends?’, Social
    Sciences Quarterly, Vol. 85 (3), September 2004, pp. 695-710.
    17
    Nicholas Kristof, ‘Following God Abroad’, The New York Times, 21 May 2002.
    18
    Julie Hearn, ‘The “Invisible NGO”: US Evangelical Missions in Kenya’, Journal of Religion in
    Africa, Vol. 32 (1), 2002, p. 39
    19
    Ibid., p. 40
    20
    Ibid.
    21
    Ibid., p. 41
    22
    These figures do not include missionaries sponsored by individual churches, especially
    Pentecostal congregations. See Peter man, ‘Evangelicals give US foreign policy an activist tinge’,
    The Wall Street Journal, May 26, 2004.
    23
    ‘Right on: Bob Geldof and Bono have some unlikely friends in America’, The Economist, June
    30, 2005. “Africa is being colonized and christianized all over again. The colonizers this
    time are Americans not Europeans and the brand of belief they are bringing to
    Africa is Evangelical Christianity”.
    Evangelical missionaries returning to the United States were acutely aware of the
    poverty and oppression they had encountered in these less developed countries.
    Above all, they were interested in the persecution of Christians in countries like
    Burma/Myanmar and the Sudan. They played a crucial role in persuading their
    organisations to mobilise in support of the persecuted co-believers. As a result of
    their interest in the “suffering church” in third world countries, evangelical
    groups attempted to direct American foreign policy in defence of Christian
    minorities worldwide. The National Association of Evangelicals embarked in
    1996 upon a highly coordinated campaign that included public gatherings,
    private meetings with officials in Washington DC and a strong media coverage
    aiming at changing US foreign policy towards countries that were persecuting
    Christians.
    24
    The Association finally persuaded a reluctant Clinton administration
    to introduce the International Religious Freedom Act in 1998. Although initially
    Clinton tried to underplay its significance, it soon became clear that the Act
    created three significant government bodies to monitor and respond to violations
    of religious freedom.
    25

    The second factor that played a crucial role in the evangelical interest in
    foreign affairs is September 11. In the three presidential elections prior to 2004,
    less than 2 per cent of evangelicals mentioned foreign policy as “the most
    important issue” that the US was facing. However, after 9/11 attitudes
    spectacularly changed: now about a third of evangelical Christians named foreign
    policy as the most important issue in the country’s agenda.
    26
    But September 11
    did not only change the views of the evangelical community but those of the US
    president as well. America was now at war. And it was not only a war of revenge
    but also a war for ideals (exporting democracy). As an anayst has aptly observed,
    the terrorist attacks transformed Bush from a “self-help Methodist” to a
    “messianic Calvinist”.
    27
    Since September 11 George W. Bush set out to remake the
    world. His transformation from a lamb to a lion,
    28
    was a crucial factor in raising
    the interest of his supporters, the evangelical Christians, for foreign affairs. If the
    United States decided to become the “moral leader”, a “force of good” for the
    world, then evangelicals had clearly a role to play.
    Of course, apart of the above factors, some structural changes affected the
    influence of the evangelicals for international affairs. Among these factors of

    24
    Elizabeth A. Casteli, ‘Praying for the Persecuted Church: US Christian Activism in the Global
    Arena’, Journal of Human Rights, Vol. 4, 2005, pp. 321-351.
    25
    Julie Mertus, ‘Raising expectations ? Civil society’s influence on human rights and US foreign
    policy’, Journal of Human Rights, Vol. 3 (1), March 2004, p. 32.
    26
    John C. Green, ‘The American Religious Landscape and Political Attitudes: A Baseline for
    2004’, Ray C. Bliss Institute, University of Akron, 2005.
    27
    Jim Wallis, ‘Dangerous religion: George W. Bush’s theology of empire’, Sojourners, SeptemberOctober 2003, pp. 20-26.
    28
    Jason Berggren and Nicol C. Rae, ‘Jimmy Carter and George W. Bush: Faith, Foreign Policy,
    and an Evangelical Presidential Style’, Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 36 (4), December
    2006, p. 620. particular importance were the development of the Web that provided not only
    an important means for information but also a critical networking and organising
    tool and the new emphasis on norms and values in the conduct of foreign policy.
    29
    Here, there was clearly a connection with the notion of the ‘persecuted church’
    that had animated anti-Communist Christian networks in the Cold War period.
    However, attempts to influence do not necessarily mean real influence. As
    Jeffrey Haynes argues, “the ability of a religious actor to translate potential
    ability into actual influence depends on several factors”.
    30
    Evangelicals exerted
    an “unprecedented” level of influence in Bush administration,
    31
    but neither their
    interest in foreign policy nor the Bush administration’s receptiveness to their
    demands alone can explain their success. The evangelicals’ political leverage
    became more effective, partly because they began collaborating with nonevangelical groups, particularly Jewish organizations. Michael Horowitz, a
    former Reagan administration official and a senior fellow at the Hudson
    Institute,
    32
    was important in bringing about this alliance. On July 5, 1995,
    Horowitz published an editorial in the Wall Street Journal, ‘‘New Intolerance
    between the Crescent and the Cross”, calling for an intervention to stop the
    persecution of Christians in Africa and the Middle East.
    33
    ‘‘Christians are the
    Jews of the 21st century’’ and the ‘‘victims of choice for thug regimes,’’ claimed
    Horowitz. Topping his list was ‘‘the imprisonment, beating, torture and selling
    into slavery of thousands of Christians in Sudan by the Islamic radical regime.’’
    The article marked the beginning of a campaign for Horowitz, who was named
    one of the ten most influential Christians of the year (together with Mother
    Teresa and Billy Graham) by Southern Baptist Magazine in 1997. The influential
    magazine Christianity Today called him the ‘‘Jew who is saving Christians’’
    34
    .
    Jewish organizations like the Union of American Hebrew Congregations and the
    Anti-Defamation League joined the evangelicals in the campaign for religious
    freedom in Africa and elsewhere.
    35
    In April 2001 Horowitz was arrested (along
    with radio talk-show host Joe Maddison and former Washington, D.C. delegate
    Walter E. Fauntroy) after they chained themselves to the fence in front of the
    embassy of the Sudan protesting slavery and anti-Christian genocide.
    36
    Steady campaigning by evangelicals concerned about the Khartoum’s
    government efforts to impose its will on the predominantly Christian and animist
    southern part of the country, played a prominent role in a US government
    intervention to end Sudan's civil war, a war that had claimed more than 2 million
    lives. The next section examines the evangelical influence on US foreign policy
    towards Africa’s largest country.

    29
    Jeffrey Haynes, An Introduction to…, op. cit., p. 253.
    30
    Ibid., p. 252.
    31
    Esther Kaplan, With God on their Side: George W. Bush and the Christian Right, New York:
    New Press, 2004.
    32
    David Aikman, ‘Avoiding a Holocaust’, Charisma, July 1, 1996.
    33
    Joshua Green, ‘God’s Foreign Policy’, The Washington Monthly, November 2001, p. 28.
    34
    Michael Cromantie, ‘The Jew who is saving Christians’, Christianity Today, Vol. 43 (3), March
    1999, pp. 50-55.
    35
    Allen D. Hertzke and Daniel Philpott, ‘Defending the Faiths’, The National Interest, Vol. 61, Fall
    2000, p. 75.
    36
    Al Kamen, ‘Protest Makes Odd Bedfellows’, The Washington Post, April 30, 2001. The Sudan37
    Many evangelicals were involved in an anti-slavery movement that
    emerged in the early 1990s, originally led by the Boston-based American AntiSlavery Group.
    38
    For evangelical groups like Christian Solidarity International,
    slavery in Sudan became a central issue. A systematic effort for the ‘‘redemption’’
    of ‘‘Christian’’ southern Sudanese slaves from ‘‘Arab Muslim’’ raiders/masters
    gained momentum in the mid-1990s. Steady campaigning on the slavery issue at
    the Christian grassroots level and fundraising through appeals to ‘‘buy back’’
    slaves by evangelical congregations helped to upgrade interest in Sudan’s civil
    war,
    39
    which was portrayed in simplistic terms, as a ‘‘biblical conflict’’ between
    Arab Muslims of the North and African Christians of the South. Gradually
    evangelical groups started to show a strong interest in U.S. foreign policy the
    Sudan.
    The US evangelicals interest in Sudan coincided with the interest of
    humanitarian and development NGOs that were very embarrassed by the
    continued interference of the Sudanese government in the workings of Operation
    Lifeline Sudan, a consortium providing humanitarian assistance to the southern
    regions of the country. Although NGOs often held very different views on what
    the US response to the Sudanese civil war should be, all of them were outraged by
    the aerial bombings of civilians by the Khartoum regime in southern Sudan.
    40
    The Rev. Franklin Graham, founder of the faith-based Samaritan Purse, which
    run a hospital in southern Sudan that was bombed by Sudanese government
    aircraft seven times in 2000, stated that he was persuaded that Khartoum’s
    government was genocidal and that Islam itself was ‘‘evil and wicked.’’
    41
    Graham
    tried to publicize the plight of Sudan by flying Senator Bill Frist (R-Tenn.) to
    Sudan’s most desolate outposts. A few days before becoming president, George
    W. Bush took a break from the campaign in Florida to meet Graham (whose
    father, Billy, had persuaded Bush to ‘‘recommit’’ his life to Christ). The two
    prayed together, and Graham made one request: ‘‘Governor, if you become
    president, I hope you put Sudan on your radar.’’
    42
    Shortly after Bush took office, a group of activists came to see presidential
    adviser Karl Rove, who had masterminded Bush’s electoral strategy. The group
    included born-again Christians and liberal Jewish activists, and its objective was

    37
    This section draws heavily from the article by Asteris Huliaras, ‘Evangelists, Oil Companies and
    Terrorists: The Bush Administration’s Policy towards Sudan’, Orbis, Fall 2006, pp. 709-724
    38
    Walid Phares, ‘The Sudanese Battle for American Opinion’, Middle East Quarterly, March
    1998, p. 8.
    39
    For a critical background see Human Rights Watch, ‘Slavery and Slave Redemption in Sudan’,
    March 2002 (http://www.hrw.org/backgrounder/africa/sudanupdate.htm) and Richard Miniter,
    ‘The False Promise of Slave Redemption’, The Atlantic Monthly, July 1999
    (http://www/theatlantic.com/issues/99jul/9907sudanslaves.htm).
    40
    Matthias Muindi, ‘Sudan: Christian Right Might Inflame War, Observers Fear’, Africannews,
    May 2001; ‘NGOs fighting over US Policy towards Sudan’, Executive Intelligence Review, May 28,
    1999.
    41
    Raymond L. Brown, American Foreign Policy Toward the Sudan: From Isolation to
    Engagement, National War College, National Defense University, April 2003, p. 24.
    42
    Ibid.; Farah Stockman, ‘Christian Lobbying Finds Success: Evangelicals Help to Steer Bush
    Efforts’, The Boston Globe, Oct. 14, 2004. to ask the new administration to intercede in the civil war in Sudan. Rove,
    according to the participants in the meeting, was ‘‘unusually receptive.’’
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    43
    The need to retain evangelical voter support was an important factor in persuading
    the new administration to show a strong interest in Sudan’s civil war. While the
    evangelicals’ demands were a headache for many career State Department
    officials, Rove saw an opportunity to encourage cooperation between the
    evangelicals and African-American lobbyists.
    For African-American activists, building alliances with other lobbies was
    highly desirable, considering that their influence on U.S. foreign policy was in
    decline.
    44
    The removal by illness of Black Muslim leader Louis Farrakhan, who
    was a defender of the Islamic government of Sudan, helped the rapprochement
    between African-Americans and the evangelicals.
    45
    African-American groups like
    the National Black Leadership Committee and the NAACP banded with
    evangelical groups, and the anti-Khartoum coalition became a significant
    political force.
    In March 2001, the U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom,
    an independent government entity created by the International Religious
    Freedom Act of 1998, issued a report calling Sudan ‘‘the world’s most violent
    abuser of the right to freedom of religion and belief’’ and summoned the
    administration to intervene. The same month, then-Secretary of State Colin
    Powell told the Congress that ‘‘there is perhaps no greater tragedy on the face of
    the earth today than the tragedy that is unfolding in the Sudan.’’ He added: ‘‘The
    only way to deal with that tragedy is to end the conflict.’’ One week after these
    comments, Powell commissioned a review of US policy toward Sudan.
    Early after coming to power, George W. Bush had announced that he
    would abandon the Clinton practice of assigning special envoys. But under the
    pressure of evangelicals and their allies, the administration changed its position.
    In May 2001, Bush appointed USAID Administrator Andrew Natsios, a man with
    strong connections with the evangelical community, as the U.S. Special
    Humanitarian Coordinator for Sudan. And in August 2001, the President
    appointed John Danforth, a moderate Episcopalian priest and former senator, as
    US special envoy for Sudan’s peace process. The ceremony took place in the
    White House Rose Garden on September 6 and was attended by Colin Powell,
    Condoleezza Rice, and many leading evangelicals.
    Two months before, in June 2001, Congress had passed the Sudan Peace
    Act, a bill that made available to President Bush up to $10 million per year in
    non-lethal aid to rebel-controlled areas. It also threatened further sanctions
    against Khartoum if its president could not certify every six months that the
    regime was negotiating in good will. The Act was praised as an expression of
    unity among a diverse group of lobbyists. Congressman Charles Rangel (D-N.Y.)
    joked that in all his thirty years in Congress he had never before been on the same
    platform with Dick Armey (R-Tex.). The bill was a victory for activists who had

    43
    Elisabeth Bumiller, ‘Religious Lobby Finds a Good Friend in Bush’, International Herald
    Tribune, Oct. 27, 2003.
    44
    Adekeyo Adebajo, ‘Africa, African Americans, and the Avuncular Sam’, Africa Today, Vol. 50
    (3), September 2004, p. 99.
    45
    Human Rights Watch, Sudan, Oil and Human Rights (London, 2003), p. 486. been campaigning against oil companies’ doing business in Sudan since the mid-
    1990s. This divestment campaign had especially targeted Talisman Energy, a
    Canadian oil company with a significant presence in Sudanese oilfields. By April
    2001, under the pressure of the anti-Sudan evangelical activists, several
    American states, including New Jersey, and many US pension funds had divested
    from Talisman.
    46
    In early 2002, Danforth reported to the president and
    advocated continued U.S. engagement in Sudan. In July 2002, under the strong
    pressure of Washington, Khartoum and the rebels finally signed an agreement in
    Machakos, Kenya. The Machakos Protocol that acknowledged the right of
    southern Sudanese to self-determination was a power-sharing agreement under
    which Sudan became a federal state with two governments that shared the newlyfound oil resources. It was a great success of US diplomacy and a unique victory
    for evangelical activists.
    However, Danforth’s efforts at pushing for a peace agreement between the
    North and the South were complicated by developments in western Sudan. In
    February 2003 the Sudanese government launched a ground and aerial assault
    on Darfur. Trying to sustain momentum in the North-South negotiations, the
    United States and other international players initially acquiesced to Khartoum’s
    aggression. However, when the government and the rebels ‘‘failed to conclude a
    ‘final deal’ in time for Bush’s state-of-the-union address in late January 2004, . . .
    Washington publicly protested Khartoum’s show of force in Darfur.’’
    47
    Despite considerable progress in the negotiations, the Darfur crisis
    gradually escalated, killing hundreds of thousands and leaving more than 2
    million refugees. In April 2004, the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum issued for
    Darfur its first-ever ‘‘genocide alert.’’ The American Jewish World Service and a
    hundred evangelical and human rights groups joined forces to form the Save
    Darfur Coalition. The Coalition’s campaign seemed capable of exerting some
    influence on foreign policy making, especially with the US election day
    approaching. In July 2004, Congress adopted a resolution branding the attacks
    by militias allied with the Sudanese government as ‘‘genocide.’’ Secretary of State
    Colin Powell also described the Darfur tragedy as ‘‘genocide.’’ ‘‘Never before,’’
    wrote an analyst, ‘‘had Congress or such senior US officials labeled an ongoing
    crisis ‘genocide.’ ’’
    48
    In August 2004, thirty-five evangelical leaders signed a letter
    urging the president to provide massive humanitarian aid and consider sending
    US troops to stop the ‘‘genocide”.
    49
    Many observers were also puzzled with the evangelical emphasis on
    Darfur, since no Christian victims were involved: it was a Muslim-againstMuslim affair. But as an analyst aptly noted, the Darfur tragedy reverberated

    46
    Hishaam D. Aidi, ‘Slavery, Genocide and the Politics of Outrage: Understanding the New
    “Racial Olympics”’, Middle East Report, Spring 2005, p. 12; Ted Dagne, ‘Sudan: Humanitarian
    Crisis, Peace Talks, Terrorism, and U.S. Policy’, CRS Issue Brief for Congress, Sept. 27, 2004, p.
    12; Michael T. Klare and Daniel Volman, ‘Africa’s Oil and American National Security’, Current
    History, May 2004, p. 229.
    47
    IISS, Strategic Survey 2003–4, London: Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 324.
    48
    Scott Straus, ‘Darfur and the Genocide Debate’, Foreign Affairs, January/February 2005, p.
    129
    49
    Alan Cooperman, ‘Evangelicals Urge Bush To Do More for Sudan’, The Washington Post,
    August 3, 2004. deeply in the United States because it was misrepresented as a racial conflict
    between ‘‘Arabs’’ and ‘‘indigenous Africans’’ that corresponded well with the
    deep-seated view of an ‘‘Arab-Islamic threat.’’20 In January 2005 the UN
    published the results of its own investigation of the Darfur atrocities, concluding
    that the violent attacks on civilians stemmed from counterinsurgency tactics and
    that, despite the claims of evangelical activists and the US administration,
    genocide was not committed.
    The evangelical activists continued their campaign. On April 26, 2006, five
    members of Congress were arrested after protesting outside the Sudanese
    embassy in Washington over atrocities in Darfur. The same day the president met
    with Darfur advocates in the White House and lent his support to rallies planned
    in more than a dozen cities around the United States: ‘‘The genocide in Sudan is
    unacceptable’’, Bush told them.
    50

    In short, the evangelical community played a critical role not only in
    placing Sudan on the US government agenda but also affecting its policies toward
    the country. And it continued to do so even after the signing of the North-South
    peace accord. As Danforth put it, Sudan became ‘‘a very, very high priority’’ for
    US foreign policy. ‘‘It was very much in the news, it was a matter, it was of great
    interest to Christian conservatives in the United States, a good part of President
    Bush’s base, and it was something that was of personal interest to him’’.
    51
    But Sudan was not the only case where evangelical activists influenced US
    foreign policy towards Africa.
    Poverty and Disease
    Within the last decade, US evangelical interest in foreign affairs has
    focused on combating poverty – especially in Africa. In the words of the
    Economist:
    “If the European campaign for aid for Africa is dominated by bleeding-heart
    liberals, poring over the Guardian and L’ Humanité, the American campaign is
    dominated by Bible-believing Christians”.
    52
    A good example is Rick Warren, a very influential pastor in California, whose
    book The Purpose-Driven Life has sold 25 million copies (more than any other
    hardback edition in US history).
    53
    Within the last years, one of his main
    objectives became the fight against poverty and disease in the developing world
    and his Saddleback Church decided to send thousands of volunteers to combat
    poverty in Africa, starting from Rwanda. In 2005, on the occasion of the 25th
    anniversary of his Church, Mr Warren brought to a stadium filled with tens of
    thousands of his supporters the President of Rwanda who took the microphone to
    thank Warren for helping “rebuild his country”. And Mr Warren’s interest in
    Africa is not an isolated initiative in the american evangelical community that

    50
    Andrew Miga, ‘5 Lawmakers Arrested At Darfur Protest’, The Washington Post, April 28, 2006.
    51
    John Danforth interview, BBC, 3 July 2005, at http://news.bbc.co.uk.
    52
    ‘Right on: Bob Geldof and Bono have some unlikely friends in America’, op. cit.
    53
    Malcolm Gladwell, ‘The Cellular Church: How Rick Warren Built his Ministry’, The New
    Yorker, September 12, 2005. journalists like to promote. The fight against poverty and disease in the Black
    continent has become one of the main interests of US evangelicals – influencing
    even policy decisions.
    Several observers have argued that Bush’s decision to increase
    spectacularly US aid to Africa (including much spending on the fight against
    HIV/AIDS) was partly a response to evangelical demands.
    54
    In Autumn 2006,
    Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice said that President Bush “should be known
    for increasing – doubling development assistance and tripling it to Africa after a
    period in which [it] was essentially flat for decades”. “He should also known”
    added Rice, “for the largest single investment in AIDS and malaria, the biggest
    health investment of any government program ever”.
    55
    Although these
    presidential initiatives reflected more cynical priorities related to the growing
    strategic importance of Africa with regard to terrorism and resources
    (particularly oil), it seems that the decision to increase spending partly reflected
    the influence of the evangelicals. It has been reported that when George W. Bush
    asked his speech-writer and fellow evangelical Michael Gerson about a plan to
    spend $15 billion fighting AIDS the answer was: “Mr President, if this is possible,
    and we don’t do it, we will never be forgiven”.
    56
    Not unexpectedly, Mr Gerson has
    been characterized as “the conscience of the White House”.
    57
    Interestingly, the
    content of the US program on AIDS was heavily influenced by the president’s
    evangelical backers, emphasising abstinence and faithfulness at the expense of
    condom distribution. In 2003, under the influence of groups like the Focus on the
    Family, the US administration decided to introduce a three-pronged strategy
    against Aids, based on promoting abstinence, faithfulness and only, when
    appropriate, condoms.
    58

    As a result the program has faced heavy criticism from many activists and
    health experts. Among the critics, the UN secretary-general’s special envoy for
    HIV/AIDS in Africa has accused the United States policy arguing that its
    emphasis on abstinence has contributed to a shortage of condoms in some
    African countries like Uganda.
    59
    “To impose a dogma-driven policy that is
    fundamentally flawed is doing damage to Africa” said the UN official.
    But the influence of evangelicals was also evident and in US development
    assistance programs that do not focus on AIDS. For decades. US policy avoided
    intermingling aid programs and religious proselytizing. This has partly been
    abandoned. President Bush has almost doubled the percentage of US aid going to
    faith-based organisations and, despite imposing some restrictions mainly at the
    request of the Congress, the separation between religious services and donor

    54
    Daniel Bergner, ‘The Call’, New York Times Magazine, January 29, 2005.
    55
    Michael A. Fletcher, ‘Bush has Quietly Tripled Aid to Africa’, The Washington Post, December
    31, 2006.
    56
    Elisabeth Bumiller. ’White House Letter: Last-minute touches for Bush’s speech writer’,
    International Herald Tribune, January 17, 2005; ‘Right on: Bob Geldof and Bono have some
    unlikely friends in America’, The Economist, June 30, 2005.
    57
    ‘Foreign policy: In the world of good and evil’, The Economist, September 14, 2006.
    58
    Michael Kranish, ‘Religious right wields clout: Secular groups losing funding amid pressure’,
    The Boston Globe, October 9, 2006.
    59
    Jeevan Vasagar and Julian Borger, ‘Bush accused of AIDS damage to Africa’, The Guardian,
    August 30, 2005. activities became more blurred than ever.
    60
    After all, since many religious
    organisations combine private and public money, they feel unrestricted about
    proselytizing as long as they can argue that they were using private money. In
    2006, the US government’s General Accountability Office, examined 13 federallyfinanced faith-based organisations and concluded that four of them “did not
    appear to understand the requirements to separate these activities in time or
    location from their program services”.
    61

    Conclusion
    Several observers of US politics are seriously questioning the view that
    lumps together all evangelicals in a single group when examining their political
    views. A sizeable number of evangelicals, they note, do not share the uncritical
    superpatriotism and the disdain for the United Nations that the religious Right
    exhibits. Neither these evangelicals support Bush’s domestic or foreign policy
    decisions. David Neff, the editor of Christianity Today, the leading magazine of
    the National Association of Evangelicals, argued in a July 2005 editorial that:
    George Bush is not Lord. The Declaration of Independence is not an infallible
    guide to Christian faith and practice … The American flag is not the Cross. The
    Pledge of Allegiance is not the Creed. ‘God bless America’ is not the Doxology.
    Sometimes one needs to state the obvious – especially at times when it’s less and
    less obvious.
    Walter Russel Mead of the Council of Foreign Relations makes a crucial
    distinction between fundamentalists and evangelicals.
    62
    Though both groups
    embrace biblical literalism, he argues, they are very different in their political
    views and orientation. The evangelicals tend to be more politically active while
    the fundamentalists are more pessimistic and introvertive. Many agree arguing
    that it is a great mistake to lump all evangelicals “together into one mass and then
    confound the lumping by quoting the wackiest people you can find”.
    63
    In a recent
    article, a leading evangelical notes that “by lumping evangelicals and
    fundamentalists into one indistinguishable mass we cede to the religious Right
    more weight and power than it deserves”.
    64

    Moreover, there is evidence to believe that even the influence of the
    religious Right and the religiosity of George W. Bush’s administration are
    overestimated by many journalistic accounts. As an analyst aptly comments,
    ‘Bush in fact swims within the mainstream of presidential religiosity’ and ‘any
    likely Republican president, born again or not, would behave much the same
    way’.
    65
    The evidence is that Bush’s moralistic rhetoric does not place him outside
    the American foreign policy tradition at times of war. ‘Bush’, writes this observer,

    60
    Farah Stockman, Michael Kranish, Peter S. Canellos and Kevin Baron, ‘Bush brings faith to
    foreign aid’, The Boston Globe, October 8, 2006.
    61
    Ibid.
    62
    Walter Russel Mead, op. cit., pp. 24-26.
    63
    ‘In the world of good and evil’, op. cit.
    64
    Peggy L. Shriver, ‘Evangelicals and World Affairs’, World Policy Journal, Vol. 23 (3), p. 58.
    65
    Leo P. Ribuffo, ‘George W. Bush and the Latest Evangelical Menace’, Dissent, Vol. 53 (4), Fall
    2006, p. 42 and p. 46. ‘seems to me the worst president since Nixon, but he is neither a zealot nor a
    simpleton’.
    66

    However, this paper has shown that evangelical influence on US foreign
    policy towards Africa is not only real but is probably much deeper, consistent and
    able to survive a change of US administration than the evangelical impact on any
    other area of US foreign policy. And there are four reasons for this:
    First, issues like poverty and disease unite rather than divide right and
    left-wing evangelicals, fundamentalists or not. Also these issues do offer ample
    opportunities for co-operation with not only other religious groups (like the
    Catholics and Muslims) but also with the organised civil society in general,
    including left-wing activists, development NGOs and ethnic (like the JewishAmerican and the Afro-american) lobbies. The anti-poverty agenda also fits well
    in the ideological landscape of the Democrats.
    Secondly, Africa is far more marginal in US foreign policy than probably
    any other world region. This means that any (Republican or Democratic) US
    administration can satisfy evangelical demands in Africa much more easily,
    avoiding the need for compromises with other important foreign policy
    objectives. For example, in another case and in sharp contrast to Africa an eager
    to develop the trade relationship with China George W. Bush has “brushed aside
    evangelical worries about government persecutions of Christians”.
    67

    Thirdly, within the 20th
    century the centre of gravity of evangelical
    Christianity has moved from the north to the south. In 1900 only 7 per cent of the
    world’s evangelicals lived in the area we describe as the Third World. By 1985 this
    share has shifted to 66 per cent
    68
    and continues to rise. This demographic shift
    means that for US evangelicals Africa is becoming more and more important.
    Moreover, as more African leaders and politicians are evangelicals, they are more
    likely to use their religious credentials to build support in Washington. Olusegun
    Obasanjo of Nigeria and Yoweri Museveni of Uganda have used their evangelical
    identity to increase their political clout in the United States.
    Fourthly, in a period where the international image of the United States is
    probably more negative than ever, evangelicals in Africa are one of the strongest
    pro-American groups in the developing world. In the words of an observer:
    “Grateful for years of patronage by the American brethren, bound by a sense of
    fellowship to the nation where the contemporary evangelical movement was
    formed, and respectful of born-again President Bush, these Africans represent a
    growing constituency of friends”.
    69
    The US evangelical community’s international connections are important for any
    American government. They wield a kind of soft power that neither a Republican

    66
    Ibid.
    67
    ‘In the world of good and evil’, op. cit.
    68
    J. Nederveen Pieterse, ed., Christianity and Hegemony: Religion and Politics on the Frontier
    of Social Change, Oxford: Berg Publishers, 1992, p. 12.
    69
    Andrew Rice, ‘Evangelicals v. Muslims in Africa: Enemy’s Enemy’, The New Republic, August 9,
    2004, p. 19. nor a Democrat President could ignore. In short the evangelical influence on US
    foreign policy towards Africa is here to stay and grow.

    (*) Associate Professor, Department of Geography, Harokopion University of Athens, Greece.
    Communication: huliaras@hua.gr

    http://turin.sgir.eu/uploads/Huliaras-huliarastur.pdf
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    http://jaysanalysis.com/2013/06/18/fractional-reserve-fiat-banking/#more-4078

    Fractional Reserve Fiat Banking

    June 18, 2013 1 Comment
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    Gold is the initial deposit, while paper notes function as the representative medium of exchange that can be expanded or contracted.
    By: Jay
    Dr. Carroll Quigley was Bill Clinton’s mentor at Georgetown. Quigley was the chronicler of the elite “Anglo-American Establishment,” as he titled it, having access to their provate records and archives. His large tome Tragedy & Hope occupies an important place in the history of ideas, functioning as a modern history for insiders. Though the book was published in 1966 with some controversy, it was republished in 1974, reportedly being given to CIA section chiefs as an explanation of why certain actions and operations were being carried out.
    In other words, it might have occurred to some section chiefs in the 1970s, “Why are we funding both right wing and socialist movements?” The answer is in Quigley’s Tragedy & Hope: The goal has never been some set ideology, but a world government under the auspices of “Democratic capitalism.” While Quigley’s book is a great insight, it is important to recognize that the book is an establishment apologia, written from the perspective of a classical Western progressive. For Quigley, the track the West had taken the last several hundred years was both good and bad, but largely good, as he proposes the thesis that western-progressive-democratic-capitalist-scientism was a great, noble and ultimately quasi-Christian development that would usher in a world federation of the best hoped possibilities.
    In this regard, Quigley was way off, if not openly deceptive, and terribly ignorant in terms of religion. This is evident to any knowledgable theologian, but for the more practically minded “officials” for whom the book was written, it probably served its purpose. Dr. Quigley naively seems to think that the Anglo-American establishment truly wants the best for humanity, but his book never mentions the cryptocracy. For him, the assumptions are the same as the rest of post-enlightenment western liberalism: men are basically good, and seek the betterment of mankind when properly educated. Of course, the 20th century alone should be enough to convince anyone with half a brain that humans are self-seeking and self-destructive. In his first few chapters he even sets the stage for modern history being developed on the basis of 19th century notions of the non-existence of evil.
    “Classical western-progressive-democratic” thought is not only not true, it’s now the facade by which the Anglo-American cryptocracy brings peaceful, democratic love bombs to the rest of the world. In Quigley’s treatise, evil Russia was defeated in the great game, leading to the rise of the western “new world order,” destined to bring scientific utopia. Amazingly, Tragedy & Hope contains several sections that detail the funding of communism and socialism by the Anglo-establishment, not because the elites are actually communists, but because communism can have a functional purpose for obtaining certain ends. I have detailed several times in my essays and articles that the West funded and established communism-socialism, largely for the purpose of the centralization of wealth, and its transferal overseas.
    I have also detailed for years how, since my college days made clear, the “left” and “right” are a faux divide that arises from the French Revolution. In the revolution, at the Estates General, the new provisional government was divided between the left Jacobins (who sat on the left), and the right Girondins (who sat on the right). What everyone seems to forget or be ignorant of, is that both of these movements are “liberal” or, more properly, revolutionary. The Girdondins favored a nobility and merchant class dominance in the new government, while the Jacobin revolutionaries thought an actual and total communistic scheme could be established. The Jacobins and their ilk are responsible for the bloodbath of the “Committee for Public Safety.”
    For Quigley, the period following the era or revolutions is thus one of enlightened progressivism and so-called freedom. Within the first hundred pages, Quigley manages to denigrate Russia as a backward, rural nation, incapable of mounting any real opposition to the British Empire. The “Great Game” just is that historic contest between the British Empire and Russia for control of the globe. This is also why I recommend Malachi Martin’s book Keys of this Blood, since Martin is clearly far more intelligent than Quigley, who appears to have less than an 8th grade level understanding of western religion, something that someone who attempts to write a massive tome on the West should obviously have a better sense of. Martin’s book is far more revelatory and instructional. In both, the “Great Game” is outlined in no uncertain terms, yet Martin includes the Vatican, something Quigley gives little to no mention of. Again, how is someone going to write a modern history of the West and be ignorant of a belief system held by a billion people? It is a similar situation in Norman Cantor’s The Civilization of the Middle Ages: Historians make terrible theologians.
    Aside from all that, it is also relevant that within the first fifty pages, Quigley lays out the entire international banking cartel system that the world presently lives under. Yes, the centralized federal reserve system in almost every nation was established, by design, as a control mechanism. With Quigley, there appears to be a slightly critical approbation of the system, yet oddly the very thing he appears to be critical of is the notion of currency being tied to a gold standard. Quigley has no problem outlining the ability of the central banks to set up fractional reserve fiat money issuance, because he appears to share what might be termed the “Keynesian” idea of government stimulus. Quigley writes as if inflation is a good thing, and deflation a bad thing.

    This is yet another progressive idea based on supposed mathematical ideals and abstract notions about how things ought to work in any given system, in contrast to how humans actually work. Yes, it would be nice if things worked that way, just as it would be nice if Quigley’s new world order was run by perfect angels who had humanity’s betterment in mind. In reality, humans are selfish and governments (owned by the central banks) are corrupt. The Bank for International Settlements, the central bank of central banks, even issues reports and policy papers showing that quantitative easing and infinite stimuli don’t work, but just destroy the purchasing power of the dollar or currency in question. Ironically, Quigley wrote his work prior to the Nixon “Shock Doctrine” of 1971, removing the nation from a gold standard, which Quigley himself admits leads to hyperinflation and unhinged “money printing.”
    In reference to the establishment of this modern banking system, Quigley explains:
    “Today we call such pieces of paper gold certificates. Such certificates entitle its bearer to exchange it for its piece of gold on demand, but in view of the convenience of paper, only a small fraction of certificate holders ever make such demands. It early became clear that gold need be held on hand only to the amount needed to cover the fraction of certificates likely to be presented for payments; accordingly, the rest of the gold could be used for business purposes, or, what amounts to the same thing, a volume of certificates could be issued greater than the volume of gold reserved for payment of demands against them. Such an excess volume of paper claims against reserves we now call bank notes.
    In effect, this creation of paper claims greater than the reserves available means that bankers were creating money out of nothing. The same thing could be done in another way, not by note-issuing banks, but by deposit banks. Deposit bankers discovered that orders and checks drawn against deposits by depositors and given to third persons were often not cashed by the latter but were deposited to their own accounts. Thus there were no actual movements of funds, and payments were made simply by bookkeeping transactions on the accounts. Accordingly, it was necessary for the banker to keep on hand in actual money (gold, certificates and notes) no more than the fraction of deposits likely to be drawn upon and cashed; the rest could be used for loans, and if the rest could be used for loans, and if these loans were made by creating a deposit for the borrower, who in turn would draw checks upon it rather than withdraw it in money, such “created deposits” or loans could also be covered adequately by retaining reserves to only a fraction of their value. Such deposits also were a creation of money out of nothing, although bankers usually refused to express their actions, either note issuing or deposit lending, in these terms.” (Tragedy & Hope, pg. 48)
    So there you have it. The essence of the modern economic system is what’s called fractional reserve banking, which gives rise to fiat money printing. Fiat money printing is possible when a single entity has control of the issuance of currency, leading to a monopoly on the money power. A monopoly on the money power through the issuance of currency means being forced at the point of a gun to use the central banks’ currencies. All of this is done under the auspices of supposedly “regulating” the economy, yet the daily examples of massive financial scandals demonstrate how absurd this idea is. This system has evolved into an international kleptocracy that will inevitably self-destruct.
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    The Committee Of 300

    Committee of 300 (aka Olympians)
    Shadow government
    Targets of the Illuminati and the Committee of 300 By Dr. John Coleman.
    Thanks to the sworn testimony of Guerzoni, Italy and Eu- rope but not the U.S. learned that Kissinger was behind the death of Aldo Moro. This tragic affair demonstrates the ability of the Committee of 300 to impose its will upon any government without exception. Secure in his position as a member of the most powerful secret society in the world, and I am not talking about Freemasonry, Kissinger not only terrified Moro, but carried through on his threats to "eliminate" Moro if he did not give up his plan to bring economic and industrial progress to Italy. In June and July of 1982, the wife of Aldo Moro testified in open court that her husband's murder came about as a result of serious threats against his life, made by what she called "a high ranking United States political figure." Mrs. Eleanora Moro repeated the precise phrase reportedly used by Kissinger in the sworn testimony of Guerzoni: "Either you stop your political line or you will pay dearly for it." Recalled by the judge, Guerzoni was asked if he could identify the person Mrs. Moro was talking about. Guerzoni replied that it was indeed Henry Kissinger as he had previously intimated.- John Coleman, The Story of The Committee of 300, p. 7
    The Order of the Garter is the secret inner group which is an elite group within the Order of St. John of Jerusalem which is the British part of the Knights of Malta. The Knights of the Garter are the leaders of the Committee of 300. They are diabolical men. Lord Peter Carrington, who is a member of the satanic Order of Osiris and other demonic groups is a member of the Order of the Garter. Lord Palmerston is an example from history of another similar example of a Knight of the Garter who was totally corrupt, pretended to be a Christian, and practiced Satanism. Bloodlines of the Illuminati 4. DuPonts
    To bring about depopulation of large cities according to the trial run carried out by the Pol Pot regime in Cambodia. It is interesting to note that Pol Pot's genocidal plans were drawn up in the US by one of the Club of Rome's research foundations, and overseen by Thomas Enders, a high-ranking State Department official. It is also interesting that the committee is currently seeking to reinstate the Pol Pot butchers in Cambodia.Targets of the Illuminati and the Committe of 300 By Dr. John Coleman.
    http://www.geocities.com/lord_visionary/committeof300.htm

    This committee of 300 is modeled after the British East India Company's Council of 300, founded by the British aristocracy in 1727. Most of its immense wealth arose out of the opium trade with China. This group is responsible for the phony drug wars here in the U.S. These phony drug wars were to get us to give away our constitutional rights. Asset forfeiture is a prime example, where huge assets can be seized without trail and no proof of guilt needed. Also the Committee of 300 long ago decreed that there shall be a smaller-much smaller-and better world, that is, their idea of what constitutes a better world.

    The myriads of useless eaters consuming scarce natural resources were to be culled. Industrial progress supports population growth. Therefore the command to multiply and subdue the earth found in Genesis had to be subverted. This called for an attack upon Christianity; the slow but sure disintegration of industrial nation states; the destruction of hundreds of millions of people, referred to by the Committee of 300 as "surplus population, " and the removal of any leader who dared to stand in the way of the Committee's global planning to reach the foregoing objectives. Not that the U.S. government didn't know, but as it was part of the conspiracy, it helped to keep the lid on information rather than let the truth be known. Queen, Elizabeth II, is the head of the Committee of 300.
    The Committee of 300 looks to social convulsions on a global scale, followed by depressions, as a softening-up technique for bigger things to come, as its principal method of creating masses of people all over the world who will become its "welfare" recipients of the future. The committee appears to base much of its important decisions affecting mankind on the philosophy of Polish aristocrat, Felix Dzerzinski, who regarded mankind as being slightly above the level of cattle. As a close friend of British intelligence agent Sydney Reilly (Reilly was actually Dzerzinski's controller during the Bolshevik Revolution's formative years), he often confided in Reilly during his drinking bouts. Dzerzinski was, of course, the beast who ran the Red Terror apparatus. He once told Reilly, while the two were on a drinking binge, that "Man is of no importance. Look at what happens when you starve him. He begins to eat his dead companions to stay alive. Man is only interested in his own survival. That is all that counts. All the Spinoza stuff is a lot of rubbish."

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    http://fourthdimension.freeyellow.com/Committee300.htm

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    http://www.whale.to/b/300.html

    Members:

    Abdullah II, King of Jordan
    Abramovich, Roman
    Ackermann, Josef
    Adeane, Edward
    Agius, Marcus
    Ahtisaari, Martti
    Akerson, Daniel
    Albert II, King of Belgium
    Alexander, Crown Prince of Yugoslavia
    Amato, Giuliano
    Anderson, Carl A.
    Andreotti, Giulio
    Andrew, Duke of York
    Anne, Princess Royal
    Anstee, Nick
    Ash, Timothy Garton
    Astor, William Waldorf
    Aven, Pyotr
    Balkenende, Jan Peter
    Ballmer, Steve
    Balls, Ed
    Barroso, José Manuel
    Beatrix, Queen of the Netherlands
    Belka, Marek
    Bergsten, C. Fred
    Berlusconi, Silvio
    Bernake, Ben
    Bernstein, Nils
    Berwick, Donald
    Bildt, Carl
    Bischoff, Sir Winfried
    Blair, Tony
    Blankfein, Lloyd
    Blavatnik, Leonard
    Bloomberg, Michael
    Bolkestein, Frits
    Bolkiah, Hassanal
    Bonello, Michael C
    Bonino, Emma
    Boren, David L.
    Borwin, Duke of Mecklenburg
    Bronfman, Charles
    Bronfman, Edgar Jr.
    Bruton, John
    Brzezinski, Zbigniew
    Budenberg, Robin
    Buffet, Warren
    Bush, George HW
    Cameron, David
    Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall
    Cardoso, Fernando Henrique
    Carington, Peter
    Carl XVI Gustaf, King of Sweden
    Carlos, Duke of Parma
    Carney, Mark
    Carroll, Cynthia
    Caruana, Jaime
    Castell, Sir William
    Chan, Anson
    Chan, Margaret
    Chan, Norman
    Charles, Prince of Wales
    Chartres, Richard
    Chiaie, Stefano Delle
    Chipman, Dr John
    Chodiev, Patokh
    Christoph, Prince of Schleswig-Holstein
    Cicchitto, Fabrizio
    Clark, Wesley
    Clarke, Kenneth
    Clegg, Nick
    Clinton, Bill
    Cohen, Abby Joseph
    Cohen, Ronald
    Cohn, Gary
    Colonna di Paliano, Marcantonio, Duke of Paliano
    Constantijn, Prince of the Netherlands
    Constantine II, King of Greece
    Cooksey, David
    Cowen, Brian
    Craven, Sir John
    Crockett, Andrew
    Dadush, Uri
    D'Aloisio, Tony
    Darling, Alistair
    Davies, Sir Howard
    Davignon, Étienne
    Davis, David
    de Rothschild, Benjamin
    de Rothschild, David René
    de Rothschild, Evelyn
    de Rothschild, Leopold
    Deiss, Joseph
    Deripaska, Oleg
    Dobson, Michael
    Draghi, Mario
    Du Plessis, Jan
    Dudley, William C.
    Duisenberg, Wim
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  12. Angroid CyberSperg 1138

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  13. Angroid CyberSperg 1138

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  14. Angroid CyberSperg 1138

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    [IMG][IMG][IMG]

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    Micky Mouse casting a spell on humanity with his Holy Wood (Holly Wood, Hollywood, Holy Stick)
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    The United Corporations of America headed by Exxon Mobil and David Rockefeller

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    Links



    Contact Pseudo Reality

    marksinbox@windowslive.com

    The Committee of 300 governs the world via a three city state empire, in which the cities pay no taxes and obey their own laws.
    City of London Corporation - Financial power centre, established in 1067
    District of Columbia - Military power centre, established in 1871
    Vatican City - Religious power centre, sovereign in 1929
    The Committee of 300 uses a network of roundtable groups, think tanks and secret societies which control the world's largest financial institutions and governments. The most prominent of these groups include Chatham House, Bilderburg Group, Trilateral Commission, Council on Foreign Relations, Ditchley Foundation, Club of Rome, RAND Corporation, PNAC and of courseFreemasonry.
    Western Europe, excluding the German Empire, was united by the House of Guelph in 1815. The German Empire was conquered in 1918 along with the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire following World War I. The thousand year war between the Guelph's and Ghibelline's finally concluded with the Axis defeat in WWII, and the introduction of nuclear weapons, since then the world has been under monopolist control.
    Following WWII Communism was allowed to spread through Eastern Europe and Asia, proving to be a superior method of conquering peoples than warfare. Communism in the forms of socialism, Outcome Based Education and slanted mass media has spread through the western world converting people by suggestion to Marxist-Leninist ideology.
    Following WWII in 1946 the Tavistock Institute was established in London with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. Tavistock's pioneer work in behavioural science along Freudian lines of 'controlling' humans established it as the world centre of foundation ideology.
    "All Tavistock and American foundation techniques have a single goal---to break down the psychological strength of the individual and render him helpless to oppose the dictators of the World Order. Any technique which helps to break down the family unit, and family inculcated principles of religion, honour, patriotism and sexual behaviour, is used by the Tavistock scientists as weapons of crowd control."
    The inevitability of a WWIII is looking more and more painfully obvious, and in the western world war is still glorified by many. The most popular movies are war movies, the most popular video games are war video games. Albert Pike, the only Confederate military figure to be honoured with an outdoor statue in the District of Columbia, had this to say in 1871 about the future WWIII;
    "The war must be conducted in such a way that Islam and political Zionism mutually destroy each other. Meanwhile the other nations, once more divided on this issue will be constrained to fight to the point of complete physical, moral, spiritual and economical exhaustion."
    The power behind the Committee of 300 is the Anglo-Jewish cousinhood that dominate the financial and political systems of the world. This cousinhood includes the Rothschild, Rockefeller, Oppenheimer, Goldsmid, Mocatta, Montefiore, Sassoon,Warburg, Samuel, Cohen, Stern and Kadoorie families.
    These families hold monopolies over the banking system, oil and gas companies and metals and mining companies. Through this domination of the financial markets they pull the strings of every government in the world. They also control the illegal drugs trade, human trafficing and illegal arms trafficking causing continuous pain and suffering worldwide.
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    Ignatius of Loyola and the House of Borgia were crypto-Jewish Marranos of the Los Alumbrados religious sect.
    The Alumbrados were a Gnostic secret society preaching the Mystery Babylonian religion and worship of Lucifer, the great deceiver. These crypto-Kabbalist Jewish mystics infiltrated the Vatican through Pope Callixtus III and Pope Alexander VI, both of the House of Borgia, as agents of the Crown of Aragon. In 1527 Ignatius of Loyola managed to escape persecution from the Inquisition with help from Pope Paul III of the Black Nobility Farnese family. Loyola claimed was he raising a Militia to defend the Papacy which would lead to absolute control of Military and Politics, and absolute control of a One World Church.
    In 1534 the Society of Jesus was founded with Ignatius of Loyola its first Superior General. Funding came from Francis Borgia the great-grandson of both Pope Alexander VI and King Ferdinand II of Aragon. Francis Borgia later became the 3rd Superior General of the Society of Jesus. The Society of Jesus went on to become the successors of the Order of Montesa who had inherited the possessions of the Aragonese branch of the Knights Templar. The penultimate Master of the Order of Montesa, Francisco Lanzol de Romani, was succeeded by his cousin Pedro-Luis de Borja who was the half-brother of Francis Borgia.
    The Lutheran reformation movement was used by the Rosicrucians, and later the Jesuits, to subvert the public and restrict the real social-political effects of the Reformation on societies in Europe. The Reformation was led by Martin Luther and was funded by Frederick III of Saxony, of the House of Wettin. The Rosicrucians, like the Alumbrados, were a Gnostic secret society preaching the Mystery Babylonian religion and worship of Lucifer. Rosicrucianism and its Kabbalist doctrine was the precursor of the Invisible College, the Royal Society and modern day speculative Freemasonry.
    After the suppression of the Jesuits in 1773, the Illuminati were founded by Jesuit student Adam Weishaupt on Walpurgis Night in 1776. Weishaupt’s greatest supporter was Ernest II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg of the House of Wettin. The purpose of this Jesuit controlled Bavarian Illuminati was to protect the Society of Jesus’ financial interests, to exact revenge on the Monarchs who forced the Jesuits suppression, to subvert the English Masonic movement and to re-establish the Society of Jesus. They achieved this by planning the French Revolution, which led to the Napoleonic Wars.
    The Jesuits were restored in 1814 after the abdication of Napoleon who was in truth a tool of the Jesuits. Napoleon had this to say about the Society of Jesus while in exile on the island of St Helena; "The Jesuits are a military organization, not a religious order. Their chief is a general of an army, not the mere father abbot of a monastery. And the aim of this organization is POWER. Power in its most despotic exercise. Absolute power, universal power, power to control the world by the volition of a single man...The General of the Jesuits insists on being master, sovereign, over the sovereign. Wherever the Jesuits are admitted they will be masters, cost what it may... Every act, every crime, however atrocious, is a meritorious work, if committed for the interest of the Society of the Jesuits, or by the order of the general."
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    The Hexagram is not a sign of Judaism. It is a sign of Zionism, Occultism, Satanism & Freemasonry.
    The hexagram is the most powerful and evil sign in Satanism and of all the occult world. The hexagram is used mainly in witchcraft to summon demons from the world. The word "hex" which means to place a curse on someone, originated from this sign.
    The Hexagram is a six sided star, made up of a six sided hexagon surounded by six equalateral triangles. Each equalateral triangle found within the Hexagram is 60° by 60° by 60°. The Hexagram represents 666 and is the 'Mark of the Beast' refered to in the Bible. As they say "The Devil is in the details".
    The Westside hand gesture or "Triad Claw" signals the letters M & W, which symbolise 666 from the three V's. The letter V is "waw" in Hebrew and "vav" in Gematria and is the 6th letter in both. The Sign of the Horns or El-Diablo hand gesture is a varriation of the "Triad Claw" with the two attached fingers bent down. The A-ok hand gesture is also a representation of the number 666; with the middle finger, ring finger, and little finger representing the top part of the six's. The index finger and thumb represent the circular part of the six's.
    Astrologically Saturn represents darkness, misfortune, death and fear. Saturday is named after the Roman god Saturn, the Ancient Greeks referred to this god as Cronus. The symbol of Saturn/Cronus is the sickle. Saturday is the 6th day of the week in western cultures and Saturn is the 6th planet from the Sun. Saturn had six children with his wife Ops, the 6th of these children was Jupiter or as the Greeks knew him, Zeus. The sickle of Saturn and hammer of Thor (Jupiter/Zeus) combined is represented in the the symbol of Communism.
    The core of the control over Planet Earth's populace lies in ancient cults. These cults are still in existence to this day. Following the most ancient religions mixed with sexual worship. The main cults are the worship of the Planet Saturn (El), Moon (Isis), Venus (Lucifer) & Sun (Ra).
    Child/Human Trafficking is one of the fastest growing crimes in the world. Child/ human trafficking is a 12 billion dollar a year industry and is the world's second largest criminal enterprise, after drugs. Saturn = Satan = El = Moloch. The power elite of this world worship Saturn and appease him with child sacrifices just as they have for hundreds of years. The most public of these displays is the "Cremation of Care" ceremony held annually at Bohemian Grove, where the members sacrifice a child to their god Moloch.

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    The Committee of 300 controls the world economy via the City of London Corporation. The City of London Corporation is made up of 108 Livery Companies, the Worshipful Company of Fuellers and the Worshipful Company of Mercers are two of the most prominant.
    The Bank of International Settlements controls the worldwide banking system including the Federal Reserve System and the European Central Bank. The International Monetary Fund and the World Bank work to indebt developing nations making them subservient to the developed nations of the world.
    The Groups of 7, 20 and 30 act as financial regulators and middlemen serviceing Central Banks and Investment Banks. These regulators are unelected and empower the Financial Terrorists at the expense of the masses.
    Finally, the Investment Banks and financial services corporations gamble with their clients money with the reassurance that any losses will be paid by taxpayers.
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  15. Angroid CyberSperg 1138

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    The power behind the Committee of 300 is the Anglo-Jewish cousinhood that dominate the financial and political systems of the world. This cousinhood includes the Rothschild, Rockefeller, Oppenheimer, Goldsmid, Mocatta, Montefiore, Sassoon,Warburg, Samuel, Kadoorie, Franklin, Worms, Stern and Cohen families.
    These families hold monopolies over the worldwide banking system, the oil and gas industry and the metals and mining industry. Through this domination of the financial markets they pull the strings of every government in the world. They also control the illegal drugs trade, human trafficking and illegal arms trafficking causing continuous pain and suffering worldwide.
    The cousinhood believes in a form of Babylonian Talmudic Judaism. The Babylonian Talmud and Shulchan Aruch contain the legal code which is the basis of today’s Judaism and Jewish law. In fact, Talmudic Judaism is primarily a legal system in a literal sense. It has little to do with religion and is more of an ancient political cult group with many followers who are not openly Jewish. This is why so many Jews openly claim to be Jewish and atheist at the same time.
    The esoteric teachings for the higher Luciferian initiates are to be found in the Kabbalah. Inside the Kabbalah is contained the mysterious rites for evocations, the indications and keys to practices for conjuration of supernatural forces, the science of numbers and of astrology. The practical application of Kabbalist knowledge has been used through the ages by Talmudic Jews to gain influence both in the higher spheres of Gentile life and over the masses.
    Sovereigns and Popes, both, usually had one or more Jews as astrologers and advisers, and they frequently gave Jews control over their very life by employing them as physicians. Political power was thus gained by Jews in almost every Gentile nation along with financial power, since Jewish court-bankers manipulated state funds and taxes.
    It is important to clarify that there is a big difference between these Talmudic Jews and Biblical Israelites. The true holy book of the Israelites is the Torah. The Talmud twists the word of God and encourages its followers to kill, lie, cheat, steal and rape. In the Bible Jesus refers to the Talmud as "your law" when condemning the leaders of Jewry.
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    "In violent opposition to all this sphere of Jewish effort rise the schemes of the International Jews. The adherents of this sinister confederacy are mostly men reared up among the unhappy populations of countries where the Jews are persecuted on account of their race. Most, if not all, of them have forsaken the faith of their forefathers and divorced from their minds all spiritual hopes of the next world. This movement among the Jews is not new. From the days of Spartacus-Weishaupt to those of Karl Marx, and down to Trotsky (Russia), Bela Kun (Hungary), Rosa Luxembourg (Germany), and Emma Goldman (United States), this world-wide conspiracy for the overthrow of civilisation and for the reconstitution of society on the basis of arrested development, of envious malevolence, and impossible equality, has been steadily growing…and now at last this band of extraordinary personalities from the underworld of the great cities of Europe and America have gripped the Russian people by the hair of their heads and have become practically the undisputed masters of that enormous empire.
    There is no need to exaggerate the part played in the creation of Bolshevism and in the actual bringing about of the Russian Revolution by these international and for the most part atheistical Jews." - Winston S. Churchill

    Some examples of Jewish beliefs from the Talmud & Kabbalah

    "Extermination of Christians is a necessary sacrifice to God." - Zohar (II, 43a)
    "A Jew shedding the blood of a Christian is offering a sacrifice to God." - Alkut Simoni (245c)
    "A Jew who kills a Christian commits no sin, but offers an acceptable sacrifice to God." - Abhodah Zarah (26b, Tosephoth)
    "How do we fight against our enemies: We do so by deception." - Zohar (I, 160a)
    "A Jew may lie and perjure himself to condemn a Christian." - Babha Kama (113a)
    "It is permitted for a Jew to deceive Christians." - Babha Kama (113b)
    "When a grown up man has intercourse with a little girl it is nothing." - Kethuboth (11a-11b)
    "A Jew may have sex with a child as long as the child is less than nine years old." - Sanhedrin (54b)






    [IMG]
    Robert Rothschild 1911-1978
    Co-author of the Treaty of Rome. On its signing he was quoted saying I think that we have re-established the Roman Empire without a single shot being fired.
    Fellow Treaty of Rome author and Rothschild family friend Paul-Henri Spaak also gave Bilderburg Group chairman Étienne Davignon his start as a member of staff in the Belgian government.

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    Abraham Goldsmid 1756-1810
    Financed the French revolution along with brother Benjamin Goldsmid and their co-conspirators Moses Mocatta, Daniel Itzig, David Friedlander and Herz Cerfbeer.
  16. Macrobius The Old Usager

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    'The Great Deeds of Jesus Christ in America', by Cotton Mather.

    Commonly considered the *only* work of literature produced in Colonial New England. But it's a humdinger, I tell you:

    http://books.google.com/books?id=x4c0AQAAMAAJ

    From the publisher's intro:

    The Magnalia is a standard work with American Historians, and must ever continue to be such, especially, respecting the affairs of New England. To this portion of our country, always distinguished for emigrations, a great part of the population of New-York, the most important state in the American confederacy, and of all the western states north of the Ohio, will always trace their origin. Nor will the lapse of ages, diminish their respect for the land of their forefathers.
  17. Anarch Record Maintainer - Schedule A

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    Should've noticed this earlier.

    Samuel Huntington's Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order
    Robert Baer The Devil We Know - Dealing with the New Iranian Superpower
    David Fromkin The Peace to End all Peace
    Niall Ferguson Empire: Rise and Demise of the British World Order
    Niall Ferguson Colossus: Rise and Fall of the American Empire
    Niall Ferguson War of the World: History's Age of Hatred
    Zbigniew Brzezinski The Geostrategic Triad : Living with China, Europe, and Russia
  18. Angroid CyberSperg 1138

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    The Donmeh

    The DONMEH


    The Dönmeh: The Middle East’s Most Whispered Secret (Part I)
    Wayne MADSEN (USA) | 25.10.2011 | 20:39
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    There is a historical “eight hundred pound gorilla” lurking in the background of almost every serious military and diplomatic incident involving Israel, Turkey, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Greece, Armenia, the Kurds, the Assyrians, and some other players in the Middle East and southeastern Europe. It is a factor that is generally only whispered about at diplomatic receptions, news conferences, and think tank sessions due to the explosiveness and controversial nature of the subject. And it is the secretiveness attached to the subject that has been the reason for so much misunderstanding about the current breakdown in relations between Israel and Turkey, a growing warming of relations between Israel and Saudi Arabia, and increasing enmity between Saudi Arabia and Iran…

    Although known to historians and religious experts, the centuries-old political and economic influence of a group known in Turkish as the “Dönmeh” is only beginning to cross the lips of Turks, Arabs, and Israelis who have been reluctant to discuss the presence in Turkey and elsewhere of a sect of Turks descended from a group of Sephardic Jews who were expelled from Spain during the Spanish Inquisition in the 16th and 17th centuries. These Jewish refugees from Spain were welcomed to settle in the Ottoman Empire and over the years they converted to a mystical sect of Islam that eventually mixed Jewish Kabbala and Islamic Sufi semi-mystical beliefs into a sect that eventually championed secularism in post-Ottoman Turkey. It is interesting that “Dönmeh” not only refers to the Jewish “untrustworthy converts” to Islam in Turkey but it is also a derogatory Turkish word for a transvestite, or someone who is claiming to be someone they are not.

    The Donmeh sect of Judaism was founded in the 17th century by Rabbi Sabbatai Zevi, a Kabbalist who believed he was the Messiah but was forced to convert to Islam by Sultan Mehmet IV, the Ottoman ruler. Many of the rabbi’s followers, known as Sabbateans, but also “crypto-Jews,” publicly proclaimed their Islamic faith but secretly practiced their hybrid form of Judaism, which was unrecognized by mainstream Jewish rabbinical authorities. Because it was against their beliefs to marry outside their sect, the Dönmeh created a rather secretive sub-societal clan.

    The Dönmeh rise to power in Turkey

    Many Dönmeh, along with traditional Jews, became powerful political and business leaders in Salonica. It was this core group of Dönmeh, which organized the secret Young Turks, also known as the Committee of Union and Progress, the secularists who deposed Ottoman Sultan Abdulhamid II in the 1908 revolution, proclaimed the post-Ottoman Republic of Turkey after World War I, and who instituted a campaign that stripped Turkey of much of its Islamic identity after the fall of the Ottomans. Abdulhamid II was vilified by the Young Turks as a tyrant, but his only real crime appears to have been to refuse to meet Zionist leader Theodore Herzl during a visit to Constantinople in 1901 and reject Zionist and Dönmeh offers of money in return for the Zionists to be granted control of Jerusalem.

    Like other leaders who have crossed the Zionists, Sultan Adulhamid II appears to have sealed his fate with the Dönmeh with this statement to his Ottoman court: “Advise Dr. Herzl not to take any further steps in his project. I cannot give away even a handful of the soil of this land for it is not my own, it belongs to the entire Islamic nation. The Islamic nation fought jihad for the sake of this land and had watered it with their blood. The Jews may keep their money and millions. If the Islamic Khalifate state is one day destroyed then they will be able to take Palestine without a price! But while I am alive, I would rather push a sword into my body than see the land of Palestine cut and given away from the Islamic state.” After his ouster by Ataturk’s Young Turk Dönmeh in 1908, Abdulhamid II was jailed in the Donmeh citadel of Salonica. He died in Constantinople in 1918, three years after Ibn Saud agreed to a Jewish homeland in Palestine and one year after Lord Balfour deeded Palestine away to the Zionists in his letter to Baron Rothschild.

    One of the Young Turk leaders in Salonica was Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the founder of the Republic of Turkey. When Greece achieved sovereignty over Salonica in 1913, many Dönmeh, unsuccessful at being re-classified Jewish, moved to Constantinople, later re-named Istanbul. Others moved to Izmir, Bursa, and Ataturk’s newly-proclaimed capital and future seat of Ergenekon power, Ankara.

    Some texts suggest that the Dönmeh numbered no more than 150,000 and were mainly found in the army, government, and business. However, other experts suggest that the Dönmeh may have represented 1.5 million Turks and were even more powerful than believed by many and extended to every facet of Turkish life. One influential Donmeh, Tevfik Rustu Arak, was a close friend and adviser to Ataturk and served as Turkey’s Foreign Minister from 1925 to 1938.

    Ataturk, who was reportedly himself a Dönmeh, ordered that Turks abandon their own Muslim-Arabic names. The name of the first Christian emperor of Rome, Constantine, was erased from the largest Turkish city, Constantinople. The city became Istanbul, after the Ataturk government in 1923 objected to the traditional name. There have been many questions about Ataturk’s own name, since “Mustapha Kemal Ataturk” was a pseudonym. Some historians have suggested that Ataturk adopted his name because he was a descendant of none other than Rabbi Zevi, the self-proclaimed Messiah of the Dönmeh! Ataturk also abolished Turkey’s use of the Arabic script and forced the country to adopt the western alphabet.

    Modern Turkey: a secret Zionist state controlled by the Dönmeh

    Ataturk’s suspected strong Jewish roots, information about which was suppressed for decades by a Turkish government that forbade anything critical of the founder of modern Turkey, began bubbling to the surface, first, mostly outside of Turkey and in publications written by Jewish authors. The 1973 book, The Secret Jews, by Rabbi Joachim Prinz, maintains that Ataturk and his finance minister, Djavid Bey, were both committed Dönmeh and that they were in good company because “too many of the Young Turks in the newly formed revolutionary Cabinet prayed to Allah, but had their real prophet [Sabbatai Zevi, the Messiah of Smyrna].” In The Forward of January 28, 1994, Hillel Halkin wrote in The New York Sun that Ataturk recited the Jewish Shema Yisrael (“Hear O Israel”), saying that it was “my prayer too.” The information is recounted from an autobiography by journalist Itamar Ben-Avi, who claims Ataturk, then a young Turkish army captain, revealed he was Jewish in a Jerusalem hotel bar one rainy night during the winter of 1911. In addition, Ataturk attended the Semsi Effendi grade school in Salonica, run by a Dönmeh named Simon Zevi. Halkin wrote in the New York Sun article about an email he received from a Turkish colleague: “I now know – know (and I haven’t a shred of doubt) – that Ataturk’s father’s family was indeed of Jewish stock.”

    It was Ataturk’s and the Young Turks’ support for Zionism, the creation of a Jewish homeland in Palestine, after World War I and during Nazi rule in Europe that endeared Turkey to Israel and vice versa. An article in The Forward of May 8, 2007, revealed that Dönmeh dominated Turkish leadership “from the president down, as well as key diplomats . . . and a great part of Turkey’s military, cultural, academic, economic, and professional elites” kept Turkey out of a World War II alliance with Germany, and deprived Hitler of a Turkish route to the Baku oilfields.” In his book, The Donme: Jewish Converts, Muslim Revolutionaries and Secular Turks, Professor Marc David Baer wrote that many advanced to exalted positions in the Sufi religious orders.

    Israel has always been reluctant to describe the Turkish massacre of the Armenians by the Turks in 1915 as “genocide.” It has always been believed that the reason for Israel’s reticence was not to upset Israel’s close military and diplomatic ties with Turkey. However, more evidence is being uncovered that the Armenian genocide was largely the work of the Dönmeh leadership of the Young Turks. Historians like Ahmed Refik, who served as an intelligence officer in the Ottoman army, averred that it was the aim of the Young Turks to destroy the Armenians, who were mostly Christian. The Young Turks, under Ataturk’s direction, also expelled Greek Christians from Turkish cities and attempted to commit a smaller-scale genocide of the Assyrians, who were also mainly Christian.

    One Young Turk from Salonica, Mehmet Talat, was the official who carried out the genocide of the Armenians and Assyrians. A Venezuelan mercenary who served in the Ottoman army, Rafael de Nogales Mendez, noted in his annals of the Armenian genocide that Talat was known as the “renegade Hebrew of Salonica.” Talat was assassinated in Germany in 1921 by an Armenian whose entire family was lost in the genocide ordered by the “renegade Hebrew.” It is believed by some historians of the Armenian genocide that the Armenians, known as good businessmen, were targeted by the business-savvy Dönmeh because they were considered to be commercial competitors.

    It is not, therefore, the desire to protect the Israeli-Turkish alliance that has caused Israel to eschew any interest in pursuing the reasons behind the Armenian genocide, but Israel’s and the Dönmeh’s knowledge that it was the Dönmeh leadership of the Young Turks that not only murdered hundreds of thousands of Armenians and Assyrians but who also stamped out Turkey’s traditional Muslim customs and ways. Knowledge that it was Dönmeh, in a natural alliance with the Zionists of Europe, who were responsible for the deaths of Armenian and Assyrian Christians, expulsion from Turkey of Greek Orthodox Christians, and the cultural and religious eradication of Turkish Islamic traditions, would issue forth in the region a new reality. Rather than Greek and Turkish Cypriots living on a divided island, Armenians holding a vendetta against the Turks, and Greeks and Turks feuding over territory, all the peoples attacked by the Dönmeh would realize that they had a common foe that was their actual persecutor.

    Challenging Dönmeh rule: Turkey’s battle against the Ergenekon

    It is the purging of the Kemalist adherents of Ataturk and his secular Dönmeh regime that is behind the investigation of the Ergenekon conspiracy in Turkey. Ergenekon’s description matches up completely with the Dönmeh presence in Turkey’s diplomatic, military, judicial, religious, political, academic, business, and journalist hierarchy. Ergenekon attempted to stop the reforms instituted by successive non-Dönmeh Turkish leaders, including the re-introduction of traditional Turkish Islamic customs and rituals, by planning a series of coups, some successful like that which deposed Prime Minister Necmettin Erbakan’s Refah (Welfare) Islamist government in 1996 and some unsuccessful, like OPERATION SLEDGEHEMMER, which was aimed at deposing Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan in 2003. Some Islamist-leaning reformists, including Turkish President Turgut Ozal and Prime Minister Bulent Ecevit, died under suspicious circumstances. Deposed democratically-elected Prime Minister Adnan Menderes was hanged in 1961, following a military coup.

    American politicians and journalists, whose knowledge of the history of countries like Turkey and the preceding Ottoman Empire, is often severely lacking, have painted the friction between Israel’s government and the Turkish government of Prime Minister Erdogan as based on Turkey’s drift to Islamism and the Arab world. Far from it, Erdogan and his Justice and Development Party (AKP) seem to have finally seen a way to break free from the domination and cruelty of the Dönmeh, whether in the form of Kemalist followers of Ataturk or nationalist schemers and plotters in Ergenekon. But with Turkey’s “Independence Day” has come vitriol from the Dönmeh and their natural allies in Israel and the Israel Lobby in the United States and Europe. Turkey as a member of the European Union was fine for Europe as long as the Dönmeh remained in charge and permitted Turkey’s wealth to be looted by central bankers like has occurred in Greece.

    When Israel launched its bloody attack on the Turkish Gaza aid vessel, the Mavi Marmara, on May 31, 2010, the reason was not so much the ship’s running of the Israeli blockade of Gaza. The brutality of the Israelis in shooting unarmed Turks and one Turkish-American, some at point blank range, according to a UN report, indicated that Israel was motivated by something else: vengeance and retaliation for the Turkish government’s crackdown on Ergenekon, the purging of the Turkish military and intelligence senior ranks of Dönmeh, and reversing the anti-Muslim religious and cultural policies set down by the Dönmeh’s favorite son, Ataturk, some ninety years before. In effect, the Israeli attack on the Mavi Marmara was in retaliation for Turkey’s jailing of several top Turkish military officers, journalists, and academics, all accused of being part of the Ergenekon plot to overthrow the AKP government in 2003. Hidden in the Ergenekon coup plot is that the Dönmeh and Ergenekon are connected through their history of being Kemalists, ardent secularists, pro-Israeli, and pro-Zionist.

    With tempers now flaring between Iran on one side and Israel, Saudi Arabia, and the United States on the other, as the result of a dubious claim by U.S. law enforcement that Iran was planning to carry out the assassination of the Saudi ambassador to the United States on American soil, the long-standing close, but secretive relationship between Israel and Saudi Arabia is coming to the forefront. The Israeli-Saudi connection had flourished during OPERATION DESERT STORM, when both countries were on the receiving end of Saddam Hussein’s Scud missiles.


    http://thirteenthmonkey.blogspot.com/2011/11/donmeh_08.html

    http://www.strategic-culture.org/
  19. Angroid CyberSperg 1138

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    The DONMEH part 2: House of Saud Connections


    The Dönmeh: The Middle East’s Most Whispered Secret (Part II)
    Wayne MADSEN (USA) | 26.10.2011 | 20:27

    [IMG]
    What will surprise those who may already be surprised about the Dönmeh connection to Turkey, is the Dönmeh connection to the House of Saud in Saudi Arabia.

    An Iraqi Mukhabarat (General Military Intelligence Directorate) Top Secret report, “The Emergence of Wahhabism and its Historical Roots,” dated September 2002 and released on March 13, 2008, by the U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency in translated English form, points to the Dönmeh roots of the founder of the Saudi Wahhabi sect of Islam, Muhammad ibn Abdul Wahhab. Much of the information is gleaned from the memoirs of a “Mr. Humfer,” (as spelled in the DIA report, “Mr. Hempher” as spelled the historical record) a British spy who used the name “Mohammad,” claimed to be an Azeri who spoke Turkish, Persian, and Arabic and who made contact with Wahhab in the mid-18th century with a view of creating a sect of Islam that would eventually bring about an Arab revolt against the Ottomans and pave the way for the introduction of a Jewish state in Palestine. Humfer’s memoirs are recounted by the Ottoman writer and admiral Ayyub Sabri Pasha in his 1888 work, “The Beginning and Spreading of Wahhabism.”

    In his book, The Dönmeh Jews, D. Mustafa Turan writes that Wahhab’s grandfather, Tjen Sulayman, was actually Tjen Shulman, a member of the Jewish community of Basra, Iraq. The Iraqi intelligence report also states that in his book, The Dönmeh Jews and the Origin of the Saudi Wahhabis, Rifat Salim Kabar reveals that Shulman eventually settled in the Hejaz, in the village of al-Ayniyah what is now Saudi Arabia, where his grandson founded the Wahhabi sect of Islam. The Iraqi intelligence report states that Shulman had been banished from Damascus, Cairo, and Mecca for his “quackery.” In the village, Shulman sired Abdul Wahhab. Abdel Wahhab’s son, Muhammad, founded modern Wahhabism.

    The Iraqi report also makes some astounding claims about the Saud family. It cites Abdul Wahhab Ibrahim al-Shammari’s book, The Wahhabi Movement: The Truth and Roots, which states that King Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud, the first Kingdom of Saudi Arabia monarch, was descended from Mordechai bin Ibrahim bin Moishe, a Jewish merchant also from Basra. In Nejd, Moishe joined the Aniza tribe and changed his name to Markhan bin Ibrahim bin Musa. Eventually, Mordechai married off his son, Jack Dan, who became Al-Qarn, to a woman from the Anzah tribe of the Nejd. From this union, the future Saud family was born.

    The Iraqi intelligence document reveals that the researcher Mohammad Sakher was the subject of a Saudi contract murder hit for his examination into the Sauds’ Jewish roots. In Said Nasir’s book, The History of the Saud Family, it is maintained that in 1943, the Saudi ambassador to Egypt, Abdullah bin Ibrahim al Muffadal, paid Muhammad al Tamami to forge a family tree showing that the Sauds and Wahhabs were one family that descended directly from the Prophet Mohammed.

    At the outset of World War I, a Jewish British officer from India, David Shakespeare, met with Ibn Saud in Riyadh and later led a Saudi army that defeated a tribe opposed to Ibn Saud. In 1915, Ibn Saud met with the British envoy to the Gulf region, Bracey Cocas. Cocas made the following offer to Ibn Saud: “I think this is a guarantee for your endurance as it is in the interest of Britain that the Jews have a homeland and existence, and Britain’s interests are, by all means, in your interest.” Ibn Saud, the descendant of Dönmeh from Basra, responded: “Yes, if my acknowledgement means so much to you, I acknowledge thousand times granting a homeland to the Jews in Palestine or other than Palestine.” Two years later, British Foreign Secretary Lord Balfour, in a letter to Baron Walter Rothschild, a leader of the British Zionists, stated: “His Majesty’s government view with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people . . .” The deal had the tacit backing of two of the major players in the region, both descendant from Dönmeh Jews who supported the Zionist cause, Kemal Ataturk and Ibn Saud. The present situation in the Middle East should be seen in this light but the history of the region has been purged by certain religious and political interests for obvious reasons.

    After World War I, the British facilitated the coming to power of the Saud regime in the former Hejaz and Nejd provinces of the Ottoman Empire. The Sauds established Wahhabism as the state religion of the new Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and, like the Kemalist Dönmeh in Turkey, began to move against other Islamic beliefs and sects, including the Sunnis and Shi’as. The Wahhabi Sauds accomplished what the Kemalist Dönmeh were able to achieve in Turkey: a fractured Middle East that was ripe for Western imperialistic designs and laid the groundwork for the creation of the Zionist state of Israel.

    Deep states and Dönmeh

    During two visits to Turkey in 2010, I had the opportunity of discussing the Ergenekon “deep state” with leading Turkish officials. It was more than evident that discussions about the Ergenekon network and its “foreign” connections are a highly-sensitive subject. However, it was also whispered by one high-ranking Turkish foreign policy official that there were other “deep states” in surrounding nations and Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, and Syria were mentioned by name. Considering the links between Ergenekon and the Dönmeh in Turkey and the close intelligence and military links between the Dönmeh-descendent Sauds and Wahhabis in Arabia, the reports of close links between ousted Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak and his intelligence chief Omar Suleiman and the Binyamin Netanyahu government in Israel may be seen in an entirely new light… And it would explain Erdogan’s support for Egypt’s revolution: in Turkey, it was a democratic revolution that curbed the influence of the Dönmeh. The influence of Wahhabi Salafists in Libya’s new government also explains why Erdogan was keen on establishing relations with the Benghazi-based rebels to help supplant the influence of the Wahhabis, the natural allies of his enemies, the Dönmeh (Ergenekon) of Turkey.

    Erdogan’s desire to set the historical record straight by restoring history purged by the Kemalists and Dönmeh has earned him vitriolic statements from Israel’s government that he is a neo-Ottomanist who is intent on forming an alliance with the Muslim Brotherhood in the Arab countries. Clearly, the Dönmeh and their Zionist brethren in Israel and elsewhere are worried about Dönmeh and Zionist historical revisionism, including their role in the Armenian and Assyrian genocide, and their genocide denial being exposed.

    In Egypt, which was once an Ottoman realm, it was a popular revolution that tossed out what may have amounted to the Dönmeh with regard to the Mubarak regime. The Egyptian “Arab Spring” also explains why the Israelis were quick to kill six Egyptian border police so soon after nine Turkish passengers were killed aboard the Mavi Marmara, some in execution style, by Israeli troops. Dönmeh doctrine is rife with references to the Old Testament Amalekites, a nomadic tribe ordered attacked by the Hebrews from Egypt by the Jewish God to make room for Moses’s followers in the southern region of Palestine. In the Book of Judges, God unsuccessfully commands Saul: “Now go and strike Amalek and devote to destruction all that they have. Do not spare them, but kill both man and woman, and infant, ox, and sheep, camel and donkey.” The Dönmeh, whose doctrine is also present in Hasidic and other orthodox sects of Judaism, appear to have no problem substituting the Armenians, Assyrians, Turks, Kurds, Egyptians, Iraqis, Lebanese, Iranians, and Palestinians for the Amalekites in carrying out their military assaults and pogroms.

    With reformist governments in Turkey and Egypt much more willing to look into the background of those who have split the Islamic world, Ataturk in Turkey and Mubarak in Egypt, the Sauds are likely very much aware that it is only a matter of time before their links, both modern and historical, to Israel will be fully exposed. It makes sense that the Sauds have been successful in engineering a dubious plot involving Iranian government agents trying to assassinate the Saudi ambassador to Washington in an unnamed Washington, DC restaurant. The Iraqi intelligence report could have been referring to the Zionists and Dönmeh when it stated, “it strives to . . . [the] killing of Muslims, destructing, and promoting the turmoil.” In fact, the Iraqi intelligence report was referring to the Wahhabis.

    With new freedom in Turkey and Egypt to examine their pasts, there is more reason for Israel and its supporters, as well as the Sauds, to suppress the true histories of the Ottoman Empire, secular Turkey, the origins of Israel, and the House of Saud. With various players now angling for war with Iran, the true history of the Dönmeh and their influence on past and current events in the Middle East becomes more important.


    sourced from: Strategic Culture Foundation on-line journal http://www.strategic-culture.org/.

    For much more background on Sabbateans please go tohttp://editorseye.com/WordPress/category/sabbateans/

    http://thirteenthmonkey.blogspot.com/2011/11/donmeh-part-2-house-of-saud-connections.html
  20. Angroid CyberSperg 1138

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    Confessions of a British Spy

    http://www.hakikatkitabevi.com/download/english/14-ConfessionsOf ABritishSpy.pdf


    Memoirs Of Mr. Hempher, The British Spy To The Middle East is the title of a document that was published in series (episodes) in the German paper Spiegel and later on in a prominent French paper. A Lebanese doctor translated the document to the Arabic language and from there on it was translated to English and other languages. Waqf Ikhlas publications put out and circulated the document in English in hard copy and electronically under the title: Confessions of a British spy and British enmity against Islam. This document reveals the true background of the Wahhabi movement which was innovated by Mohammad bin abdul Wahhab and explains the numerous falsehood they spread in the name of Islam and exposes their role of enmity towards the religion of Islam and towards prophet Mohammad sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam and towards Muslims at large. No wonder the Wahhabis today stand as the backbone of terrorism allowing and financing and planning shedding the blood of Muslims and other innocent people.

    http://surrenderingislam.com/essential-reading/essential-reading


    An Iraqi Mukhabarat (General Military Intelligence Directorate) Top Secret report, “The Emergence of Wahhabism and its Historical Roots,” dated September 2002 and released on March 13, 2008, by the U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency in translated English form, points to the Dönmeh roots of the founder of the Saudi Wahhabi sect of Islam, Muhammad ibn Abdul Wahhab. Much of the information is gleaned from the memoirs of a “Mr. Humfer,” (as spelled in the DIA report, “Mr. Hempher” as spelled the historical record) a British spy who used the name “Mohammad,” claimed to be an Azeri who spoke Turkish, Persian, and Arabic and who made contact with Wahhab in the mid-18th century with a view of creating a sect of Islam that would eventually bring about an Arab revolt against the Ottomans and pave the way for the introduction of a Jewish state in Palestine. Humfer’s memoirs are recounted by the Ottoman writer and admiral Ayyub Sabri Pasha in his 1888 work, “The Beginning and Spreading of Wahhabism.”

    In his book, The Dönmeh Jews, D. Mustafa Turan writes that Wahhab’s grandfather, Tjen Sulayman, was actually Tjen Shulman, a member of the Jewish community of Basra, Iraq. The Iraqi intelligence report also states that in his book, The Dönmeh Jews and the Origin of the Saudi Wahhabis, Rifat Salim Kabar reveals that Shulman eventually settled in the Hejaz, in the village of al-Ayniyah what is now Saudi Arabia, where his grandson founded the Wahhabi sect of Islam. The Iraqi intelligence report states that Shulman had been banished from Damascus, Cairo, and Mecca for his “quackery.” In the village, Shulman sired Abdul Wahhab. Abdel Wahhab’s son, Muhammad, founded modern Wahhabism.

    http://thirteenthmonkey.blogspot.com/2011/11/donmeh-part-2-house-of-saud-connections.html

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